For deer hunting (Whitetail out to 30-40 yards), what draw weight and draw length would you recommend?

Draw weight should be what you can comfortably handle, and shoot well. This depends on the individual person. Generally speaking, I would recommend 45 pounds or higher to ensure adequate penetration, but deer have been shot with lower poundage bows. Draw weight is a big factor in determining kinetic energy…..kinetic energy largely determines penetration. Compound bows have more kinetic energy for a given draw length and draw weight than recurves or longbows. Cams will give you more kinetic energy than round wheels.